Proximate (Moisture, Protein, Fat, Fiber, Ash)
Moisture, Protein, Fat
Moisture, Protein, Fat, Fiber
Moisture, Protein, Fat, Ash
Moisture, Protein, Fiber
Protein, Fat, Fiber
Protein, Fat, Fiber, Ash
Moisture, protein, fat, and ash are quantitated and reported, as well as carbohydrates which are calculated as 100% minus the sum of moisture, protein, fat and ash.
* includes Moisture, Protein, Fat and Ash
In human and pet nutrition calories can be calculated from protein, fat and carbohydrates values, where by convention each gram of protein and each gram of carbohydrates contains 4calories and each gram of fat contains 9 calories. Moisture, protein, fat, ash and calculated carbohydrates values will be quantitated and reported, as well as the calculated calories. This is not a net or metabolizable energy value for livestock feedstuffs, which can only be determined by feeding trial.
** includes Moisture, Protein, Fat, Ash & Carbohydrates
Moisture (Hot Plate)
Moisture (Karl Fischer)
Total Solids (Dry Matter)
Pepsin Digestibility (0.2%, 0.02%, 0.002%, or 0.0002% Pepsin)
Pepsin digestibility is defined as the percentage of crude protein that is digestible using (x%) pepsin in 0.1NHCl solution at 40ºC/16 hours with agitation. The only pepsin concentration (x%) mentioned in AOAC 971.09 is 0.2%,but increasingly the other concentrations offered above are being used, with the aim of increasing the sensitivity of the test. Simply request "Pepsin" for the AOAC standard 0.2% concentration, otherwise specify "Pepsin" plus the desired concentration (e.g.: "Pepsin .002%").
Modified Torry Digestibility
Modified Torry (developed as an indicator of fish meal protein quality by the Torry Research Station of Aberdeen, Scotland) is a digestibility test using 0.0002% pepsin, except that it is calculated as a percent of the crude protein without solubles. Because the fish solubles are eliminated from the equation, some deem this a truer indicator of quality.
* two above tests include crude protein
Total Volatile Nitrogen
Urea and Ammoniacal Nitrogen
By analyzing an aqueous extract of dry fish meal, this offers a crude estimate of the protein in a meal attributable to fish solubles having been blended back into the meal.
Fat (crude, by ether extraction)
Fat (Acid Hydrolysis)
The method of choice for extruded pet food and materials containing rumen bypass fats, as the so-called "ether extract" method (920.39) will only recover a fraction of the fat.
Fat (Bligh - Dyer)
A specialized procedure and the method of choice for marine by-product meal preparatory for Fatty Acid profiling. It yields a cleaner chromatogram for FAP's.